diabetes Diet lipid March 12, 2022

Sphingolipids represent the structurally most diverse class of lipid molecules. The structural complexity of sphingolipids is due to changes in the three components of these lipids: long-chain bases, amide-bonded fatty acids, and head groups.

Sphingolipids are signaling molecules involved in a variety of cellular functions, from cell cycle control to the breakdown of plasma membrane proteins. They are associated with some of the most lethal birth defects and degenerative diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer’s and dementia.

Ceramides are a simple subtype of sphingolipids composed of fatty acids of varying lengths and amino groups (sphingoid bases, usually sphingosine). Unique structures with small side chains, high hydrophobic, structural membrane components, and signal molecules.

Sphingomyelinase and Ceramidase are present in three forms of acid, neutral and alkaline. Their partial types depend on cells, functions, and optimal pHs. In principle, acidic lubricants and ceramic functions are functioned by lysosomes.

Clinical Effects 

Resistance to Insulin
Obese diabetic patients had elevated levels of ceramide species, including C18:0, C20:0, C22:0, and C24:1. Women with PCOS have a 25% increase in overall insulin sensitivity and a 40% increase in circulating adiponectin levels. Importantly, their skeletal muscle showed a 300% increase in ceramide levels, further highlighting the inverse relationship between circulating adiponectin and ceramide levels.

Cardiovascular disease
Numerous clinical studies have found an association between ceramides and cardiovascular disease. The Dallas Heart Study found that adiponectin in plasma was only inversely proportional to saturated fatty acid chain ceramides and not unsaturated fatty acids. Additionally, patients with undesirable lipid profiles are more likely to have short chain ceramides, both saturated and monounsaturated.
Leptin is another important adipokine that plays an important role in nutrition and fat homeostasis, as well as reproduction, bone maintenance, immunity, and more. Leptin, released from adipose tissue, transmits a satiety signal to the hypothalamus, reducing food intake. Intake .

As the sphingolipid subtype, these species are particularly important in many sphingolipid pathways. High levels of ceramides are known to be correlated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Furthermore, the interaction between ceramides and adipokines, particularly adiponectin and leptin, appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of these conditions.
Adiponectin appears to counteract the deleterious effects of elevated ceramide levels, primarily by activating the receptor’s ceramidase activity. Elevated ceramide levels appear to exacerbate leptin resistance, an important finding in the pathophysiology of obesity and metabolic syndrome.